Smbat Byurat

Smbat Byurat's biography is written by his son Hayk-Levon Byurat

Smbat Byurat was born on March 3rd, 1862 in Zeytun, at Shovoryan (or Baz Bayir) quarter. He received his elementary education in Zeytun. 9 years old, he left Zeytun and attended and graduated from Jharankavorats School (Armenian Theological Seminary) in Jerusalem, then continued his education in Sorbonne, France.

In 1880 he returned to Cilicia, started helping the education system, first as a helper of the principal, later as a principal of Cilicia's Marash Central School district. 1880 Byurat organized “Kilikio pahapan” (The protector of Cilicia) organization, where he was able to connect with all religious centers of Cilicia and get the first census done in Cilicia. He was teaching in Zeytun from 1882 to 1884. In 1885 he opened a private school and taught in Sis for only 6 months, but could not continue due to climate and that summer he went to Constantinople and met times' biggest and greatest writers there. In “Erkragund '' (The Globe), he published his first writing “Meryalner” (The Dead) in the August 1885 issue.

In 1885 he published his first book, which was about the geography and history of the Zeytun region. In 1885 he also met and married to Xas-gyux Orphanage school teacher, Yevdoxia Shishmanyan.

In 1886 he returned to Zeytun with his wife as a Union School inspector. On August 10, 1886, Yevdoxia gave birth to his first son Vaghinak. Smbat spent much time travelling to establish schools all around the region. In 1887 from the Zeytun great fire where 950 houses burned, Smbat lost his family house and with his wife left for Constantinople. Less than 6 months later, he gets an assignment at Samson and spends 3 years there. In 1890 with his pregnant wife and child, he was on his way to Zeytun, when he was arrested at Yerpuz village and they were taken to Marash prison, where Smbat's second son: Hayk-Levon was born September 1890.

Smbat and 48 other political prisoners were kept in prison until the end of 1895 in Aleppo. After he was freed, he relocated to Constantinople (Istanbul).

In 1896, he realized that Sultan's police were after him again, forcing him and his family to flee to Egypt. He published his first newspaper “Nor Or '' (New Day) and Puniq (Phoenix) in Egypt. Smbat opened private schools for four years in Cairo and Alexandria. Tired of the political party's constant arguments, he completely stopped being a political figure in 1900. Same year he signed agreements with "Hratarakchakan" (Publication) of Tbilisi to send them his unpublished works for mass publication, but soon he learned that "Hratarakchakan" was bankrupt. With help, he again started publication of Puniq (Phoenix) at Cairo for another four years.

Smbat Byurat & wife Yevdoxia Byurat

From 1904 he was inspector-director for the school district, at the same time he was Alexandria cities Mixed Court systems Officer. During these years he was traveling to Venice Italy and other cities with his sons. His sons were applying to go school in St. Lazare, Venice, Italy. In 1907 he went to Romania for 10 months, but having fallen victim to political games, he had to leave the country quickly. He moved to Bulgaria to teach, where he was caught by spies and arrested again by the Sultan's police. On the way to Constantinople, news arrives that the Young Turks overthrow the Sultan, and Smbat was able to escape. Smbat with his family returns to Constantinople (Istanbul). In 1908 he was elected as a National Representative for 10 years to represent Zeytun-Marash region. End of that year, with his older son -Vaghinak he opened a Publishing House.

In 1910 with his younger son Hayk-Levon he came back home to Zeytun to visit his parents' graves. For three and half months they visited almost all of Cilicia's major locations. On their way back, they visited Athens, Greece.

From 1908 to 1914 he wrote and published over 40 books while fighting political wars to free Armenia. Then came World War I, where the Turks decided to address “The Armenian Question,” by exiling and killing over two million Armenians from Turkish-Armenia. Smbat Byurat, along with most of the Armenian political and cultural leaders, was arrested and exiled in April of 1915 to Ayaş, Ottoman Turkey. All were massacred; according to rumors, he was stoned to death. His last words sent to his sons were: “I am a dead man now. Forget about my body. Save my writings...”.

Vaghinak Byurat

Vaghinak Byurat was born on August 10, 1886 in Zeytun, at Shovoryan (or Baz Bayir) quarter. He received his elementary education from both parents. He went to get higher education in Venice Italy at St. Lazare, travels lot and has learn publishing business in Europe. First he works for other publishers, than when family returns to Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1908, with his dad opens “Jamanakakic Matenashar” (Modern Litography) publishing house.

Vaghinak and Smbat Jr. in Lebanon, 1937

Vaghinak & Smbat Jr.
1937 Lebanon

He married first time 1911 in Istanbul Turkey. His first wife's name was Araxi and their god father was Grigor Zohrap.

He had 2 daughters from that marriage-Anais and Sirarpie, both stayed in Istanbul as much as we know under their uncle's care till they got married.

1912 Vaghinak was on “Titanic” and survived when he was taking 6000 books to America.

In 1925 Vaghinak left Turkey and lived in Lebanon and in and out in Syria. A little before then Hayk-Levon with his mother had moved to Cairo, Egypt.

Vaghinak remarried in 1933, and his only son was born in 1934, named Smbat in his grandfather's memory.

Vaghinak Byurat in 1946 with his family repatriated to Soviet Armenia. They took with them over 6,000 books to Armenia. Most of the books were confiscated from them as forbidden anti-governmental and nationalistic literature.

The only literary work Vaghinak was able to do in Soviet Armenia was in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Armenian Genocide, he published Smbat Byurat's short biography in a magazine.

Vaghinak Byurat lived a long life to his old years. During Christmas of 1965 Vaghinak fell on the street and broke his hip. For 80 years old Vaghinak it was very hard to become bed bound.

With grandson Haik, 1963 Yerevan, Armenia

Now he uses his time educating and teaching his 5 years old grandson. He taught Haik to play card games and backgammon. But education took first priority, teaching him mathematics and Armenian language. Later years he taught him Armenian Literature, making a multi-page list of the books for Haik to read. He taught Haik to Love the Armenian Language unconditionally. Haik was taking care of his grandpa, loved and appreciated him a lot. Haik especially loved to hear his grandpa's life stories, Armenian and foreign tales. One of the ways Vaghinak described someone's death is that he did “poof” and passed. That is exactly how he passed January 6, 1972, without suffering and like a candle burning all the way to the end.

His major dream was to see his father's works published in Armenia, but he did not succeed. He died with hope in his heart. It is fair to state that his own people forgot Smbat Byurat's literary contributions and heroic fall. Artists would sing one of Smbat Byurat's famous songs “Adana Lamentation” (Adanayi Oxb@), yet it was recognized as a folk song by an unknown writer. His heirs did not fight the Soviet bureaucracy, and in 1980 they immigrated to the United States with empty packets…

Vaghinak (1886-1972) and Bersabe (1895-1975)
Byurats gravesite in Armenia

Hayk-Levon Byurat

Younger son of Smbat Byurat was born in Marash prison, September 1890: Here is how Smbat Byurat describing his birth in the Marash prison:

Young Woman was screaming from the pain with one voice, screaming for a couple of seconds, paused to cry, and then she was screaming again, more pitiful and more powerful.

-Let's clean the room, please leave the room, all of you, -asked doctor Polatyan.

Fatma Tutu escorted all of them out-both Armenians and both Turks. She returned to the cell, proud of her job's power and duty.

The child, forgotten by everyone (Smbat's first son), was sleeping in the corner of the cell, while her mother was still suffering.

A scream came out of the giving birth mother, which was signaling the critical second. Mother's scream was followed by the baby's scream.

That scream was from a newborn Armenian boy, who was announcing his victorious entrance to the tyranny of the world. That was the cry of the future soldier, who was opening his eyes inside the Crime and Pain room. They wrapped the baby in the leftover clothes of the prisoners, and the dirt was his bed. Fatma Tutu was in joy and holiday, because she had a new prisoner under her care-a newborn baby prisoner. The mother sadly looked at her newborn. She took her newborn and with maternal instinct gave him a breast to suck milk from. And he carelessly sucked the milk, the milk that comes from the Suffering and Pain fountain. Looked the mother to her newborn proud and happy, and she hugged him, giving him her first motherly kisses on his chicks. She was whispering an old sweet lullaby. More she looked, the happier she became. She was so happy that she brought life to the place where lives get lost every day.

These feelings were comforting her, making her forget reality, the four cold and dark walls reality. She was thinking that the newborn baby would be the reason for her to get her freedom, since it was unimaginable to live in these conditions. She had big hopes for her soon to come freedom. With that hope in her mind, she slept the baby on her chest and the other child on her side.

Hayk-Levon Byurat (1890-1953)

Forty days later:

In Marash's St. Stepannos church, which was sitting right under the Marash's Castle, there was a christening in process, with a large crowd present. They were baptizing the prison born baby boy. At the baby's christening present were father, his uncle Avetiq and Der-Ghazar high priest grandfather, who despite his eighty plus years, rushed to Marash after getting his son's letter. Although the baby's mother asked to name the baby Tsavak (Painful) because he was born in jail, his father wanted to name him Hayk-Levon: Hayk for the Armenian Nation's first ancestor and freedom fighter, and Levon for the last Armenian King, imprisoned in chains… The newborn was named Hayk-Levon.

Family suffered hard 5 years of Smbat Byurat prisoning first in Marash, later at Aleppo. After relise of prison family goes to Constantinople and Smbat becomes teacher in Armenian school, but knowing that sultan's spies are after him, he finds a way to escape from there to Egypt 1896.

Hayk got most of his knowledge at home, first from his parents, later from his brother. With family he lives in Alexandria from 1896-1908, then moves to Constantinople with his family. He worked with his brother and learn book publishing business. Hayk-Levon lives with his mother Yevdoxia after Armenian genocide. He got married but we do not have name of the wife. It was very unhappy marriage per Vaghinak. 1925 he moves with mother and wife to Egypt, lives in Cairo and Alexandria till 1948. During that time he gets authorization from Vaghinak to use “Jamanakakic Matenashar” (Modern Lithography) name and published 65 different books, most of them Smbat Byurat's republications. He had low key life, still was prosecuted by locals. 1948 he repatriated to Soviet Armenia, carrying with him 7,000 books. The ship after dropping 1,500 Armenian repatriates in Batumi, on its way to Russia had fire in board and many lives were lost.

With Stalin's order some of the Armenians were charged as English-American spies and Hayk-Levon was exiled to Siberia. He was skin and bones and authorities decided to send him home 1953 to die there and that is what exactly happen to him. Within days of his return he saw his brother Vaghinak and passed away within week. Vaghinak blame his brother's wife for his death and never seen her after that. We know that Hayk-Levon had daughter, but we do not know anything about her.

This is the story what we were able to find up to now. We are very sad for my grandfather's brother's life. I named after him and still digging the history to find more information about him.

The Byurat Cultural Foundation (BCF) and Vahag Byurat Concepts Inc.

The Byurat Cultural Foundation (BCF) was officially established in January 2000 by Haik and Hasmik Byurat in the United States. The foundation's purpose is to introduce and translate the literary works of Smbat and Vaghinak Byurat to the Armenian community throughout the world, and especially in the United States. Some of the published works will be translated to English if there is interest.

The foundation published 4 books from 1999-2002 in Armenia.

The first book published in 1999 is the short self-biography of Vaghinak Byurat titled “My Life's Memories,” or in Armenian, “Im Kyanki Hoosherits' '. In 2002, we also published Vaghinak's “Best Writings'' or in Armenian, “Endir Edjer” which includes "Aryunot Tashkinak" (translated: "Bloody Handkerchief") and “Shekhi Vortin” (translated: “Sheik's Son”).

In 2001, we were able to publish one of Smbat Byurat's books for the first time in Armenia. It was his first book entitled, “Best of Novels'' or in Armenian, “Yerger.”

Also, in 2002, the foundation published a book named, “Smbat Byurat's World of Novels” in Armenian, translated: “Smbat Byurati Vebashkhare.” The book was published by the State Museum of Literature and Art of Armenia.

With the publication of these two Smbat Byurat's books for the very first time in Armenia, we made Vaghinak Byurat's dream a reality.

Byurat Cultural Foundation and Vahag Byurat Concepts Inc., financed and publishing 5-th book in Armenia. That was Smbat Byurat's “Poems”. Published March of 2022, for Smbat Byurat's 160-th birthday.

In July 4, 2023, Byurat Cultural Foundation and Vahag Byurat Concepts Inc., financed and publishing 6-th book in Armenia. This was Smbat Byurat's autobiography called “Diary of Mountain Man”, which used 367 handwritten pages from his archived work, from Yeghishe Charents State Museum of Art and Literature of Armenia.

2021, Haik and Hasmik Byurat translated first ever English book for Smbat Byurat. By translating Smbat Byurat's first ever book to English, we are trying to achieve the following:

We want our new Armenian generations to learn and cherish our over 3500 years old language, but in case they do forget (in my opinion unbelievable sin against being Armenian), still we want our new generations to come to know their roots.

We want the whole world to know what happened before all Armenian massagers of 19-th century and Genocide of 1915 in Turkey.

Although we lost Byurat Cultural Foundations being a charitable organization 2005 due to NO support from the community, we will still continue to operate our organization to teach and preserve the Armenian language.

Smbat Byurat School:

Expandable Image

November 1997, School #125 of Zeytun region of Yerevan was named after Smbat Byurat.

From 1997 to 2009 Hasmik and Haik were financing and organizing graduation day with financial gifts to the year's best teacher, best male and female students. Our family stopped supporting due to an ungrateful school principal. School was also completely rebuilt by Kerkor "Kirk" Kerkorian organization in 2007-2009. In 2020 we again reconnected with the school and its new principal. We have high hopes for the future.

School participating lot to learn and teach about forgotten and forbidden writer Smbat Byurat

2022 children at school celebrated Smbat Byurat's 160-th Birthday and same evening were part of the new book “Poems” celebration at The Charents Museum of Literature and Arts of Armenia (GAT)

Varuzhan, Seda, Ani & Karine Byurat
#125 Smbat Byurat name school

Smbat Byurat's Works and Book List.

From 1908 to 1914 he wrote and published over 40 books

Vaghinak and Hayk-Levon published all his works from 1908-1937 in Turkey, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt.

Almost impossible to find these books in good condition, since 1980 Byurat family was able to collect ONLY 8 original published books by Byurats and 1 published by some other.

So, we were hopelessly waiting for another book to show up that we can buy and keep and we were thinking that Smbat Byurat's most of the books we will not be able to save.

Then we investigated and beginning year 2020 we found most of the books in Armenia's main library. Most of these books were the ones that was confiscated from our family 1946-1948, proof of it is Vaghinak Byurat's hand writings on them. That year we meet with Tigran Zargaryan who was instrumental next years to put most of these books digital and make it available on line. Only book we did not find is “Bible” written in Zeytun dialect.

With this link you can see all the books available written or published by BYURATs

As of end of 2023, there are 114 items on this list.

Below is list of the books that Smbat Byurat wrote.

Small book of poems

Smbat Byurat's handwriting from papers at The Charents Museum of Literature and Arts of Armenia (GAT)

Other Information and links

Story of the “Adana Song/ Adana Lamentation”

July 1908, The Young Turk Revolution was a constitutionalist revolution in the Ottoman Empire. The Committee of Union and Progress, an organization of the Young Turks movement, forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to restore the Ottoman Constitution and recall the parliament.

Lots of exiled intellectuals cheered this Revolution and return to homeland, including Smbat Byurat, who returned to Constantinople from Egypt.

Ottoman and Armenian revolutionary groups had cooperated to secure the deposition of Sultan Abdul Hamid II and the restoration of constitutional rule in 1908. In reaction, on 31 March 1909 (13 April by the Western Gregorian calendar) a military revolt directed against the CUP seized Constantinople (Istanbul after 1928). While the revolt lasted only ten days, it precipitated a pogrom and massacres in Adana Province against Armenians that lasted over a month.

Smbat Byurat wrote his poem “Adana Lamentation- (Adanayi Voghp) in the memory of the victims 1909 and publishes it first time in one of his magazines, if I am not mistaken in “Gaxapar” (Opinion) June of 1909.

In 1911, the poem was published in the book <<Հայուն երգարանը>> (Armenians Song Book) by Hmayak Aramyants on page 287 (please see attached picture).

In 1912 the poem again was published in <<Կիլիկիոյ Աղետը>> (Disaster of Cilicia) by Hakop Terzeyan on page 851(see attached picture).

Unfortunately, after 1940's when this poem was published again and again…, NO ONE in Armenian Diaspora wrote the writers name (please see attached picture), and in Armenia Smbat Byurat was forbitten literature. Because of this, people called the poem and the song a folk song, Author's name never being mentioned.

In Armenia, singers started singing this song late 1970-s, but this song was sung in Armenian diaspora almost immediately after the poem was written (the fact is that it was published in the song book very first time in 1911). Even being a sad song, Armenians still sang this in their gatherings, even in their weddings.

First time I ever heard this song was by my aunt Araxi when I was 3 years old, in 1963. When I was 10 years old, my grandpa Vaghinak recited this poem to me couple of times, with deep sadness about his forgotten father. He showed me in the Book <<Զեյթունի պատմությունը>> (History of Zeytun) by H. Pogosyan, where only two of the verses of the poem were on page 371.

In America, after looking for a long time, I was able to find this poem in entirety in 1998, and I bought Armenian Alphabet fonts for my computers and typed it for myself. I published it 1999-2000 in my announcement articles to Armenian community about the establishment of the Byurat Cultural Foundation. First 5 years, BCF was charitable organization, but we lost that because of no financial support of the community. Nevertheless, we used those 5 years publishing 4 books in Armenia, putting the cornerstone of the Smbat Byurat's name, bringing back from forgotten and forbitten status.

March of this year, we published Smbat Byurat's “Poems” book and the “Adana Song/ Adana Lamentation” poem was first time ever published along with ALL the rest of the poems that Smbat Byurat wrote. For the poem's page, lovely Sibil offered us a URL that if you scan with your cell phone, it will take you to the website, where Sibil is performing the song.

April 27, 2022, I watched for the first time an entire 30 minutes of television program created by Hasmik Hakhverdyan with Գրականության և արվեստի թանգարան /Museum of Literature and Art/ of Armenia. In this program they first presented short history of Smbat Byurat's life, this poem, and Armenian famous singers presenting stories about the poem and the song. This was very beautiful and tastefully created program. I thank Hasmik Hakhverdyan, all the singers-Acabi Gazarian, Flora Martirosyan, Zaruhi Babayan, Nune Yesayan, Sibil Pektorosoglu, Maria Cozette and the entire team for this wonderful program!

Ադանայի ողբը (Տարբերակ 2)
Կոտորածն անգութ, հայերը թող լան,
Անապատ դարձաւ շքեղ Ատանան.
Կրակն ու սուրը եւ անխիղճ թալան
Ռուբինեանց տունը ա՜խ, ըրին վերան։
Րոպէ մը չանցաւ ՚ ու հայոց խեղճեր,
Ինկան սուրին տակ խուժանին ահեղ,
Ժամեր ու դպրոցք բոցի մէջ կորան,
Բիւրաւոր հայեր անխնայ մեռան։
Պարապ էր աւա՜ղ, հարուստ Ատանան,
Մոխիր էր դարձէր ամբողջ Կիլիկիան.
Միայն ապրեցաւ Հաճընը սիրուն,
Ինչու չի շարժիր ապառաժ Զէյթուն։
Ցերեկ ու գիշեր կրակը մէջէն,
Թշնամուն սուրը, գնդակը դրսէն,
Ջնջեցին հայը երկրին երեսէն,
Արիւն կը վազէ մեր ջինջ գետերէն։

The massacre is ruthless, let the Armenians cry,
The glorious Adana turned to a desert.
Fire and sword and ruthless plunder
Oh…, they ransacked the house of the Rubenians.
Not a minute passed and the poor Armenians,
They fell under the sword in terror of the mob,
Churches and school were lost in the flames,
Many Armenians died carelessly.
Alas, rich Adana was idle!
The whole of Cilicia was reduced to ashes,
Only beautiful Hadjin Survived,
Why did not Zeytun move from his cliff?
From the fire day and night,
Enemy sword, bullet from outside,
The Armenians were wiped off the face of the earth,
Blood running from our Clear rivers.

Translation by Haik Byurat

Հրատարակվել է արմատներով զեյթունցի Սմբատ Բյուրատի ստեղծագործությունների ժողովածուն
Երաժշտական պատմություններ/ Ադանայի ողբը/ Adana

Smbat Byurat 4 Part Videos

Smbat Vaghinak Byurat - His engineering and technical achievements.

My dad is one of the smartest individuals that I have met in my technical life. Physical work never interested him; however, he was a real scientist all of his life.

In 1957 Smbat graduated from Yerevan Polytechnic Institute. Twenty years later I followed in his footsteps by excelling in the entrance exams, and chose the same specialty in Electro-Chemistry at his alma mater.

After immigrating to the U.S.A., he never got his dream job. It was a 9-year-venture that he eventually gave up without a single complaint.

He will be 89-years-old within weeks, and I want to dedicate this post to the work he has accomplished in his lifetime. Most of his achievements had been credited to his employers in order to be granted permission to publish.

My dad was compensated ~$90 for the 2 technical inventions that he worked on, when the USSR sold them to American companies' for hundreds of millions of dollars in the 1960's. The engine was used at that time to create artificial diamonds by using a crystallization process.

I spent lots of time to scan and prep all of these materials so that you can view it on YouTube

Smbat Byurat Publications

  1. Use of several polymers in the anticorrosion technology. NAUCHNO-TEKHNICHESKI SBORNIK, (Chemistry and Chemical Technology Series), No.2, 1962, Yerevan (Page 33).
  2. Protection from corrosion by rubber coatings. MASHINOSTROITEL No.3, 1964 Moscow (Page 32)
  3. Influence of polymerization inhibitors on resistance of acid resistant mastics (pastes) in chloroprene containing environments. PROMISHLENNOST ARMENII No.8, 1965, Yerevan (page 39)
  4. Gluing fluorine plastics. PLASTICHESKIE MASSY No.7, 1967, Moscow (Page 20)
  5. Gluing polytetrafluoroethylene. PLASTICHESKIE MASSY No.8, 1968, Moscow (Page 74)
  6. Protection of equipment (apparatus) with pressure-vulcanized rubber on the bases of Nairit KHIMICHESKOIE E NEFTIANOE MASHINOSTROENIE No.4, 1968, Moscow (Page 24)
  7. Research of affect of the composition of Nairit rubber coating on their chemical resistance BORBA S KOROZIEI KEM NEFTEPERERAB PROM SBORNIK No.2, 1968, Moscow (page 165)
  8. Research of affect of the vulcanization conditions on the chemical resistance of rubbers based on Nairit BORBA S KOROZIEI KEM NEFTEPERERAB PROM SBORNIK No.2, 1968, Moscow (page 175)
  9. Removal of old rubber coating from the internal surface of steel equipment (apparatus) OBORUDOVANIE; EXPLUATATSIA, REMONT I ZASHCHITA OT KOROZIEI v KEM PROM No.10, 1973, Moscow (page 15)
  10. Super slow speed motors, slow but precise TEKHNIKA MOLODEZHI No.8, 1974, Moscow (page 22)
  11. Impact of the components and methods of vulcanization on the chemical resistance of Nairit rubber. Equipment, its use, repair and protection against corrosion in chemical industry. OBORUDOVANIE; EXPLUATATSIA, REMONT I ZASHCHITA OT KOROZIEI v KEM PROM No.12, 1973, Moscow (page 13)
  12. Chemical resistance of resin per Nairit PROMISHLENNOST ARMENII No.7, 1968, Yerevan (page 29)
  13. Electric motor of constant current made on bases of electrolytic element when movement of current is happening with movement of matter from anode to cathode. IZOBRETATEL I RATHSINALIZATOR No.10, 1977, Moscow (page 25)
  14. About chemical resistance of rubber on the bases of Nairit PROMISHLENNOST ARMENII No.8, 1967, Yerevan (page 46)
  15. Influence of prescribed factors and methods of vulcanization on the acidity of Nairit rubbers PROMISHLENNOST ARMENII No.12, 1974, Yerevan (page 48)
  16. Electrical motors: Motors without any moveable parts inside By Armenian Inventors S. Byurat and P. Nadjarian. SOVETSKI SOUZ, No.1, 1978, Moscow, 1978 (Page 43)
Chemical Abstracts:
v68, 40636x, 1968 v69, 97405w, 1968 v69, 36883d, 1968
v70, 12720t, 1969 v70, 12410s, 1969 v85, 44791z, 1970
85., 144399q, 1976
Smbat Byurat Inventions
1. Electric DC Motor, Soviet Invention No. 237964 int.C1. H O2K.
2. Electric DC Motor, Soviet Invention No. 312355 int.C1. H O2N 4/00.

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